In this study, we delve into the complex structures of the Milky Way, leveraging recent advancements in data quality for a large number of stars. Our aim is to use unsupervised methods to unravel the intricate components associated with the Galaxy’s formation and evolution. We determine stellar properties for 21,076 red giants, spanning distances of 2–15 kiloparsecs from the Galactic center, establishing the most extensive sample of red giants with precisely measured asteroseismic ages.
By employing Gaussian mixture models as an unsupervised clustering technique, we explore the Galactic disc’s different stellar structures incorporating chemical, kinematic, and age-related data. The outcome reveals four distinct physical components within the stellar disc: the thin disc, the thick disc, the stellar halo, and an interesting kinematically heated thin disc component.
Moreover, we identify a potential age asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Galactic disc. We also quantify the vertical and radial age gradients of the Galactic disc by extending asteroseismic ages to greater distances than previous investigations.
HR 7322 is a bright star that is slightly more evolved than our Sun in the phase of its evolution known as the subgiant phase. This is from an evolutionary point of view a rather quick phase, lasting only a small fraction of its life as a hydrogen-fusion main-sequence star but during which fundamental structural changes occur in the star.
Bright subgiant stars are interesting as they can be studied using different methods. This makes it possible to test predictions from methods that depend more strongly on our current theory of stellar models against less model-dependent methods.
In this study, we compare the stellar radius from interferometry, which is more-or-less a geometric method of deriving the radius and thus depend very little on the stellar models, to stellar radii estimates from the scaling relations and estimates from detailed stellar modelling, which by nature has a high model-dependence.